2021/09/10

OSR: Book Entrances and Exits

It might be useful to consider a book as a physical space through which the reader's attention wanders.

Entrance: where the reader starts reading.

Exit: where the reader stops reading.

It's not the only tool for designing an RPG book, and it can easily be extended to ridiculousness, but it might be a useful approach when planning or laying out a book.

Non-RPG Texts

Novels
Fiction generally has one entrance and one exit. A reader starts the book at the beginning, reads linearly, and arrives at the end. Chapter markers (optional) serve as waypoints when reading is not continuous, but they are not navigational; no one opens a book for the first time, finds the table of contents, and skips to Chapter VI: Sleary’s Horsemanship without reading the preceding chapters.

Novel layout tries to make the continuous reading process as smooth as possible.

Books of Poetry
Most poetry compresses easily, but each poem needs space to breathe. Poetry is contemplative. Moving on to the next poem is not necessarily encouraged by layout choices. Poems are sometimes linked or grouped editors or by poets, but there's rarely a correct or incorrect reading order. Poetry layout gives space for the mind to linger.

Random page from Teen Vogue.
Magazines

The layout of a magazine is designed to appeal to a casual browser. Reading a magazine linearly, cover to cover, in order, with each article linking into the next, is not common. Readers skip ahead, flip through, see what grabs their attention, and read that. Bits that don't appeal are ignored.

Callouts grab the reader's eye. A large quote, black bar, a bit of boxed text; they yank a browser from drifting-thought mode into reader-mode. Advertisements mix with content. Stories mix with other stories. Magazines are mostly designed to fill time.

Every page needs to be an entrance, but magazine design includes few exits. It's like a casino. Articles lead into other articles. Images grab the eye. Magazines aren't designed to be reread or referenced, so there's a basic table of contents, but no effort at landmarking or condensing content.

Nonfiction

Textbooks / General Nonfiction
A typical nonfiction work in any field has several entrances and exits.

  • Linear (to gain a full understanding of the subject).
  • By chapter (to brush up, check a reference, learn about a specific topic, etc.)
  • By term.
  • Internal cross-references.

While a novel may or may not include a table of contents and descriptive chapter headings, a nonfiction work of any length must (to support by-chapter entrances), and should also include an index (to support by-term entrances). Academically dissected fiction can use nonfiction tools.

Nonfiction works often include illustrations, charts, or pictures, which can serve as landmarks but are not intentionally placed for that purpose. Some textbooks use colour coding or other visual clues as a navigational aids. 

Instructions
Instructions are purely linear: one entrance at step 1 and one exit at the final result. They need to support very discontinuous reading (as the reader hops between the instructions and the object), but actively discourage nonlinear reading. Short instructions serve as their own index and table of contents.

Good instructions break a processes into discrete sub-processes (assembling one section of a chair first, measuring and mixing your dry ingredients, etc.) and mark out typical failure points. How many times have you read "taking care not to..." in a recipe? Little exclamation marks or boxes mark out difficult or easily confused points, or points where instructions branch into multiple paths.

Instructions are not a tutorial. They tell you what to do, but not why, and rarely explain the relevance of each step.

Manuals
Manuals typically incorporate sets of instructions attached to an introduction and some appendices.

  • Linearly reading a manual might be a best practice, but nobody actually does it.
  • By section. (Installation, Part #s, Warranty Info).
  • By problem. (How do I replace this part? Why is it making this noise? Can I use this type of soap?)

How a manual addresses by-problem entrances is a key measure of its utility. Manuals, more than instructions, include warnings.

Summary

Novels are like a long hallway with a painted mural.

Collected poetry is like a circular gallery with statues in it. 

Magazines are like an open-air market. There might be lanes or clusters of stalls, but you can browse in any direction, and every stall is vying for your attention.

Textbooks / General Nonfiction are like a connected line of rooms, each one with a door to the outside world, or a museum, or an art gallery, or a shopping mall.

Instructions are like a line of rooms, or a long hallway with a series of linked pictures, each only making sense in the context of the previous image.

Manuals are a series of long galleries radiating from a lumpy central mass.

RPG Books

Relatively few nonfiction books have to handle the challenges RPG books typically cover. A cookbook can safely assume the reader will sart cooking one recipe and end with the same recipe. Instructions for repairing a car do not need to instruct the reader what a car is, how to drive, the purpose of a garage, or the history of the Interstate Highway System.  

For some multipurpose RPG books, the closest structural equivalent is a holy text, with all the associated baggage. 

Here are a few tentative examples of RPG entrances and exits.

Entrances for a typical player-facing class-based splatbook, like the 5th Edition PHB

  • Linear (but skimming) to see what options are available. Art and summary blurbs help a lot.
  • Class-specific entry, to reference during character creation or leveling up.
  • Ability-specific entry, to reference as needed or when there's a confusing rules situation.

Since most of the entrances focus on a specific class, it makes a lot of sense to clearly landmark each class with a heading and eye-catching art. If abilities are shared by two or more classes, but not by all of them, it makes sense to duplicate the information instead of having the reader flip to a different section. Readers dip in and dip out.

Entrances for a typical dungeon:

  • Linear, to get a sense of the dungeon or decide if it's worth running.
  • By room, during a session, as needed.
  • By NPC/faction name. Essentially, checking who these people are, why they're here, and what they want.
  • For a dungeon-specific tool, like a random encounter table.

For most dungeons, a good table of contents works much better than an index. Clear choices when it comes to room order, including intuitive/flowing numbering systems and breaking a dungeon into sections, help with navigation.

Entrances for a typical bestiary:

  • Linearly, to browse for ideas, or just for reading pleasure.
  • By creature name, as directed by a random encounter table or reference in an adventure.
  • By problem, but only if the reader already knows the bestiary contains tools/appendices to solve that particular problem.

Indexing takes a different form. Instead of presenting the same information as the table of contents (a list of creature names in the printed order), it might include.

  • An alphabetical list (if the printed order is not alphabetical).
  • By terrain type, then by name to the creature.
  • By creature level / HD / difficulty, then by name to the creature.

Since every bestiary entry needs to be its own entrance (in theory), repeated formats and visual landmarks help with navigation. Bestiaries designed to be read instead of referenced can employ layout tricks to hinder exits and encourage further reading. Entries flow into each other; hints in one entry are resolved in another, etc.

Entrances for a typical GM Guide:

  • Linearly, to fully understand the system (as written). Ideally, like a textbook, concepts explained in early chapters are built upon in later chapters.
  • By problem. How do I handle wilderness travel? How much does a chicken cost? What are the core assumptions of this system. What do I do? Heeeelp!

GM guides (whether presented separately or as part of a single book), tend to act as a catch-all for any problems the author anticipates a GM might encounter. Organizing and indexing them is a difficult challenge. It's useful to know every time daggers show up in Macbeth; it's less useful to know every time they show up in the GM Guide. The index entry for "dagger" should point to the rules for daggers and (unless it's actually useful) nowhere else.

As a manual includes warnings, a GM guide can include sections that focus on potential errors or misunderstandings, or differences between this system and what the author considers "conventional" play.

Setting books that focus on at-table utility tend to support or even encourage non-linear reading; setting books that are designed, intentionally or not, for the reader (or the shelf) tend to follow a novel-like linear flow. There's no right answer. Some books are designed to load concepts into a GM's head before a game. Some are designed to be referenced during a game. And some aren't designed at all, but created by publisher mandate or perceived customer demand.

Second image via McMansionHell

Whitespace and Design

There's a difference between minimalism and the acres of beige carpet surrounding the bed of an overscaled American McMansion. Whitespace is not nessesarily wasted space, but it's very easy for a RPG book to feel bloated or empty. The reader wanders through vast oddly shaped rooms with a few bits of information spread on unloved side tables or stuck in high cupboards.

The clunky shots and long pauses in The Rogue's Tavern [1936] aren't pillow shots or moments of stillness. They're just the result of working on a budget, in a hurry, in a relatively new medium, and not quite managing to hit competence. Robert F. Hill directed 16 films in 1936. Quantity over quality, I suppose.

Back on topic. Low information density (or too much whitespace) feels most egregious when it leads to:

  • Tool mediocrity (i.e. all the entries on this table are the same, just with different primary colours in the text).
  • Tool disconnect (i.e. the explanation/detail/term I want is on a different page or in a different section and there's no good reason for it).
  • Tool absence (i.e. I expected/wanted a tool to be here and instead there's a blank space).

It's very easy for information density to cross a line into impenetrability. Density does not nessesarily help with entrances and exits. It can trap, mislead, or bore a reader. Page after page of identical tables and two-column text is not ideal.

Side Note: tool absence is not an issue if the text, context, or format makes it clear that the tool will not be provided. It's only an issue when the reader expects to find something and doesn't.

McMansionHell
Look at all this density.

Fear of excessive whitespace can also encourage an author/designer to insert filler: badly designed tools, repetitive or sluggish text, long meandering descriptions of things that don't matter to anyone and fail to help with the book's stated goals. The density of information has gone up, but the density of relevant information has dropped.

Finally, if the primary goal is to convey a tone or a theme, especially with a limited pagecount format like a 'zine, use every trick at your disposal. I still remember the "Number Appearing" text from "Broken System #000" even if it took me an hour to track down the author and the original format.

Final Notes

If you're searching for a design vocabulary, architecture might be a good place to start. Architects tend to write interesting articles and worry about unusual problems.

2021/08/18

OSR: The Alphabetical Index of All Monsters

The Monster Overhaul will have several useful indices. There's a basic table of contents, of course, and the HD(NA) section has already been posted, but since the book is designed to cover a lot of possible monsters, an Index of All Monsters is mandatory.

It can't contain all monsters, of course, but the goal is to include every monster a reader is likely to look up in an index. The name is a bit of a joke.

Chaos Frogs by Naf

Not Wanted On The Voyage

Lake Monsters
Every lake has a mysterious serpent-like beast that allegedly sinks small boats but is otherwise harmless. It'd be easier to list the lakes that don't have a legendary inhabitant. Between the dinosaur craze of the late 1800s and the cryptid fads of the '60s and '70s, depictions became homogenized and suitable for town logos and tourism marketing.

Ape Monsters
It's a similar story for ape-like humanoids. I've included the best-known ones, but monster lists are full of "evidence" for a worldwide secret clan of hairy humans. 

Side Note: the other potential issue is that some hairy human tales are just racism/xenophobia that the folklorist didn't pick up on. "Those weird semi-human primitive hill creatures that we hate" sometimes turn out to be actual people.

Clearly Fictional Monsters of Allegory
Bicorn and Chichevache are perfect examples. Creatures that were originally allegorical but gained new associations over the years are fine; creatures that are nothing but allegory are not.

Creatures That Don't Do Anything
If a creature doesn't do anything more supernatural than a cow producing milk or a pepper plant producing pepper, and if it isn't actively dangerous to people, it's probably not worth including. A venemous snake with two heads is interesting, but it doesn't need stats.

Singular Creatures
If a creature only appears in one source, and hasn't been widely reinterpreted or discussed, it's probably not worth indexing. Anyone who knows of the creature should also have a good idea what sort of stats it needs. Famous named dragons, for example, probably don't need to be listed by name.

Nebulous Creatures and Gods
If a creature created a mountain range, regularly devours the sun, or exists everywhere, it's probably not something stats can adequately cover. I've included the Demigod entry just in case. If a creature's motivation, form, and abilities change with every tale, it's probably too difficult to incorporate into an index. 

Fully Fictional Creatures
Unless a creature appears in at least 2 RPG sources and another type of work (a video game, the original novel, etc.), it's probably not worth indexing. Some of the phonemic soup creatures from White Dwarf are definitely not worth revisiting. "You encounter [rolls] an Abrogalsid, which is different from an Agrobalsid in several very boring ways. Roll for initiative." 

I also want to steer clear of copyright issues (even though indexing, with the right caveats, is a perfectly fine use case). Wizards of the Coast Product Identity creatures are right out.

Other Indexing Concerns

Via wikipedia.

Fidelity
The Grootslang is just a "great snake"; one of many such snakes. Since the early 2000s, thanks to the internet and a misread reference, it's become an elephant-featured snake instead of an elephant-sized snake, and developed a host of new abilities largely unrelated to its original myth.

Which version should I index? The "correct" one, or the new (and more interesting, from an RPG point of view) one? 

Similarly, Gygax's Gorgon in the original Monster Manual is Topsell's error, perpetuated by Freund. Should I index Gorgon as "see Catoblepas" or "see Medusa" or both? Gorgon->Catoblepas is only a valid reference because of D&D, but the Monster Overhaul is a D&D-type book.

There's no correct answer. Every story about a creature, even if it's a real creature, is still a story. It's turtles all the way down.

It sounds trite, but mythology was not written for RPG purposes. Creatures were written, adapted, or changed for specific reasons, but until very recently those reasons did not include "What happens if some imaginary people in a collective story framework bolted to a random number generator encounter this monster?"

-What to Include in the Monster Overhaul?

All Wights Reversed
Not all two-word creature names have their reverse doubles in the index. Readers are unlikely to look up "Tortoise Tsar" by "Tsar, Tortoise" (if they look it up at all), but they are very likely to look up "Giant Spider" by "Spider, Giant".

A Shark By Any Other Name
If an index entry would reference the same creature, it's not included. If you look up "Shark, Great White", then the index entry for "Shark" will point you in the right direction. "Shark, Great White", "Shark, Hammerhead", "Shark, Tiger", etc. will just clog the index. I've also tried to avoid near synonyms. "Rat" and "Rodent" are fairly close and point to the same entry; including Rodent doesn't feel necessary.

I've tried to include the most common species names and their cross-references. It's possible that readers will look up "Megalodon" or "Gorgosaurus". 

Formatting
Instead of directing the reader to flip to a different index entry, I'm going to provide the page # of the final reference. This gives me a bit of flexibility in formatting and saves the reader time.

Where a creature corresponds more-or-less 1:1, or is explicitly included in, an existing entry, I use "see". Where a bit of extra guidance is needed, I've used "as". I may revise a few entries to give a bit more guidance, but in some cases, it feels unnecessary. Anyone looking up a creature by that name should also have a general idea of its form and abilities.

Sigbin by Ash

The Alphabetical Index of All Monsters

The first column covers entries in the book. The second column is cross-references. The formatting will be significantly adjusted to fit the book. Blogger does not like tables.

What have I missed? What interpretations do you disagree with? Cunningham's Law to the rescue!


Aboleth
Abyssal Fish

Achaierai - as Bear (pg. ###), but avian, darkly intelligent.

Adherer - as Sea Slug (pg. ###), but humanoid and sticky.

Adjule - see Hyena (pg. ###).
Adventurer

Aepyornis - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Aerial Servant - as Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Agropelter - as Baboon (pg. ###), but arboreal, tosses branches.

Ahool - as Flying Lizard (pg. ###), but a giant ape-like bat.

Ahuizotl - as Seal (pg. ###), but hound-like, grasping hand on tail.

Ajaju - as Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###), but a multi-tongued stilt-legged chameleon.

Akkorokamui - see Kraken (pg. ###).
Alicanto
Alien Invader
Alien Visitor

Alkonost - see Harpy (pg. ###).

Alligator - see Crocodile (pg. ###)

Allosaurus - see Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###).

Almas - see Ape (pg. ###).
Alpha Mind
Alpine Specter

Alseid - see Dryad (pg. ###).

Amikuk - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).

Ammonite, Giant - see Kraken (pg. ###).

Amoeba - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Anaconda - see Giant Snake (pg. ###).

Anatosaurus - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).
Ancient Arthropod
Ancient Dragon

Android - see Robot Servant (pg. ###).

Androsphinx - see Sphinx (pg. ###) or Manticore (pg. ###).

Anfac - as Rotifer (pg. ###), but a fusion of beaver, lizard, and catfish.
Angel

Anggitay - see Centaur (pg. ###).

Angle Hound - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Anglerfish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Animated Item

Ankheg - see Tunnel Hulk (pg. ###)

Ankylosaurus - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).

Anomalocaris - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).

Ant Lion - as Tunnel Hulk (pg. ###), but pit-dwelling.

Ant, Giant - see Hive Insect (pg. ###)

Apatosaurus - see Thunder Lizard (pg. ###).
Ape

Ape, Colossal - see Colossal Ape (pg. ###)

Apparition - see Ghost (pg. ###)

Apsara - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Arthropod, Ancient - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).

Assassin Bug - see Skeeter (pg. ###).

Atomie - see Sprite (pg. ###).

Aurumvorax - as Rust Monster (pg. ###), but badger-shaped.

Axe Beak - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Babbler - as Troglodyte (pg. ###), but spouts gibberish.
Baboon

Badger, Giant -see Wolf (pg. ###).

Bake-kujira - as Legendary Whale (pg. ###), but ethereal.

Baku - as Mind Eater (pg. ###), but tapir-like and benevolent.

Baluchitherium - see Rhinoceros (pg. ###)

Banderlog - see Baboon (pg. ###).

Bandersnatch - see Swift Lizard (pg. ###).

Bandit - see Mercenary (pg. ###).
Banshee

Bar Juchne - see Beast of Creation (pg. ###).
Barbarian

Barbegazi - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Barghest - see Hell Hound (pg. ###).

Barkburr - see Predatory Plant (pg. ###).

Barmanou - see Ape (pg. ###).

Barracuda - see Shark (pg. ###).

Barreleye - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Basidirond - see Myconid (pg. ###).
Basilisk

Bat, Giant - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###)

Bat, Giant - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###)

Bat, Swarm - see Murderous Crows (pg. ###)

Bat, Vampire - see Skeeter (pg. ###)
Bear
Beast of Creation

Bee, Giant - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Beetle, Giant - see Tunnel Hulk (pg. ###).

Behir - see Drake (pg. ###).

Beluga - see Seal (pg. ###).

Berbalang - as Imp (pg. ###), but hungry for entrails.

Beroe - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Berserker - see Barbarian (pg. ###).

Bigfoot - see Ape (pg. ###).

Bird, Flightless - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###)
Biscuit Golem

Black Panther - see Panther (pg. ###).

Black Pudding - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Blindheim - as Strong Toad (pg. ###), but eyes instead cast light as a bonfire.

Blink Dog - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Blink Dog - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).
Blizzard Eel

Blob - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Boa Constrictor - see Giant Snake (pg. ###).
Boar

Bog Creeper - see Shambler (pg. ###).

Bogeyman - see Nightmare Beast (pg. ###) or Orc (pg. ###).

Boggart - as Brownie (pg. ###), but malevolent.

Bogle - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Bonnacon - as Catoblepas (pg. ###), but sprays caustic feces.

Bonobo - as Baboon (pg. ###), but peaceful.

Boobrie - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Booka - see Sprite (pg. ###).

Bookworm - see Marine Worm (pg. ###).

Brachiosaurus - see Thunder Lizard (pg. ###).

Brain Flayer - see Mind Eater (pg. ###).

Brigand - see Mercenary (pg. ###).

Bristle Worm - see Marine Worm (pg. ###).
Brownie

Broxa - see Skeeter (pg. ###).

Buccaneer - see Pirate (pg. ###).

Buckawn - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Bugbear - see Ogre (pg. ###).

Buggane - as Tunnel Hulk (pg. ###), but a humanoid mole.

Bukavac - as Froghemoth (pg. ###), but a six-legged horned lizard.

Bulette - as Shark (pg. ###), but burrow 2x normal.

Bunyip - as Seal (pg. ###), but river-dwelling, predatory.

Burach Bhadi - as Marine Worm (pg. ###), but a nine-eyed strangling leech.

Burrunjor - as Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###).

Capybara - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).

Carbuncle - see Alicanto (pg. ###).

Carcass Crawler - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).

Carp, Giant - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Caryatid Column - see Stone Golem (pg. ###).

Cassowary - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Caterpillar, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).
Catoblepas

Cave Cricket - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).
Cave Person

Ccoa - see Raijū (pg. ###).
Centaur

Centipede, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###) or Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).

Chalicotherium - see Ground Sloth (pg. ###).

Chalkydri - see Ethereal Dragon (pg. ###).
Chaos Frog

Charybdis - see Rotifer (pg. ###).

Cheetah - as Panther (pg. ###), but move 3x normal.
Cherub
Chimera

Chimpanzee - as Baboon (pg. ###), but cunning.

Chimpanzee - see Ape (pg. ###).

Chimpekwe - as Elephant (pg. ###), but aquatic, one horn.

Chupacabra - see Sigbin (pg. ###).
Clay Golem

Cloaker - see Mimic (pg. ###).

Clubnek - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).
Cockatrice

Cockroach, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).
Colossal Ape
Colossal Insect
Couatl

Cougar - see Panther (pg. ###).

Coyote - see Hyena (pg. ###) or Wolf (pg. ###).

Crane, Giant - as Flightless Bird (pg. ###), but fly normal.

Crawling Claw - as Skeleton (pg. ###), but just a hand.

Crayfish, Giant - see Giant Crab (pg. ###).

Criosphinx - see Griffon (pg. ###).
Crocodile

Crustacean, Giant - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###) or Giant Crab (pg. ###).

Crysmal - see Living Gem (pg. ###).

Cube, Gelatinous - see Ooze (pg. ###).
Cultist

Cù-sìth - see Hellhound (pg. ###).

Cyclops, Greater - see Giant (pg. ###).

Cyclops, Lesser - see Ogre (pg. ###).

Dao - see Jinnī (pg. ###).
Dark Fair

Death Knight - see Wight (pg. ###).

Deep One - as Troglodyte (pg. ###), but fishy, swim normal.
Demigod

Demilich - as Lich (pg. ###), except only a skull remains.

Desmostylus - see Seal (pg. ###).
Devil

Devil Dog - see Hell Hound (pg. ###).

Devil, Tasmanian - see Kamaitachi (pg. ###).

Diakka - see Leafling (pg. ###).

Dienonychus - see Swift Lizard (pg. ###).

Dimorphodon - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).

Dingmaul - as Lion (pg. ###), but with a bulbous tail.

Dingo - see Hyena (pg. ###).

Dingonek - as Hippopotamus (pg. ###), but an aquatic leopard-like fanged armadillo.

Diplodocus - see Thunder Lizard (pg. ###).

Disenchanter - see Rust Monster (pg. ###).

Displaced Beast - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Displaced Cat - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Djinn - see Jinnī (pg. ###).

Dog - see Wolf (pg. ###).

Dolphin - see Seal (pg. ###).
Doppelganger

Dracolich - see Zombie Dragon (pg. ###).

Dracolisk - as a Young Dragon (pg.###), but with a Basilisk's (pg. ###) petrification ability.
Dracospawn

Dragon - see Young Dragon (pg. ###) or Ancient Dragon (pg. ###).

Dragon Horse - see Kirin (pg. ###).

Dragon Turtle - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).

Dragon, Ancient - see Ancient Dragon (pg. ###).

Dragon, Ethereal - see Ethereal Dragon (pg. ###).

Dragon, Young - see Young Dragon (pg. ###).

Dragon, Zombie - see Zombie Dragon (pg. ###).

Dragonborn - see Dracospawn (pg. ###).

Dragonfly, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).
Drake

Drider - as Centaur (pg. ###) or Lamia (pg. ###). Lower half spider.
Droggin

Drop Bear - as Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###), but a koala, attacks from above.
Druid
Dryad
Dullahan

Dust Devil - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Dustdigger - see Sea Star (pg. ###).
Dybuk

Eagle, Giant - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).

Echeneis - see Remora (pg. ###).

Eel, Blizzard - see Blizzard Eel (pg. ###).

Eel, Giant - see Marine Worm (pg. ###).

Eel, Gulper - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Eel, Snipe - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Efreeti - see Jinnī (pg. ###).

Eisel - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).
Elemental
Elemental Spirit
Elemental Tyrant
Elephant
Elsewhere Creature

Empty One - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Emu - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Enfield - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Enveloper - see Mimic (pg. ###).

Erinys - see Harpy (pg. ###).
Ethereal Dragon

Ettercap - as Giant Spider (pg. ###), but four limbs, sapient.

Ettin, Greater - see Giant (pg. ###).

Ettin, Lesser - see Ogre (pg. ###).

Eurypterid - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).
Eye Tyrant
Fairy

Fairy Dragon - see Pseudodragon (pg. ###).

Faun - see Satyr (pg. ###).

Fenghuang - see Firebird (pg. ###).

Fetch - see Doppelganger (pg. ###).
Firebat
Firebird

Fish, Abyssal - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###)

Flameskull - see Firebat (pg. ###).
Flesh Golem
Flightless Bird
Flower Nymph

Flumph - as Marine Worm (pg. ###), but jellyfish-like, dimly intelligent.

Fly, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).
Flying Lizard

Forge Fiend - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Formian - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Frankenstein - see Wizard (pg. ###).

Frankenstein's Monster - see Flesh Golem (pg. ###).

Frog, Giant - as Kappa (pg. ###), but not intelligent.
Froghemoth

Fuccubus - see Devil (pg. ###).

Fungus, Walking - see Myconid (pg. ###).

Fungus, Snow - see Snow Fungus (pg. ###).

Fury - as Harpy (pg. ###), but without singing.

Gajasimha - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Galtzagorriak - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Gar, Giant - see Crocodile (pg. ###)
Gargoyle

Garkain - as Ghoul (pg. ###), except fly normal on skin-flap wings.

Gashadokuro - as Colossal Ape (pg. ###), but skeletal.

Gastropod - see Predatory Snail (pg. ###) or Sea Slug (pg. ###).

Gazebo - see Mimic (pg. ###).

Gazeka - as Ground Sloth (pg. ###), but with a tapir-like trunk.

Gelatinous Cube - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Gello - see Night Hag (pg. ###).

Gem, Living - see Living Gem (pg. ###).

Genie - see Jinnī (pg. ###).

Ghast - see Ghoul (pg. ###).
Ghost
Ghoul
Giant
Giant Crab
Giant Snake
Giant Spider

Giant, Noble - see Noble Giant (pg. ###).

Gibbering Mouther - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Gibbon, Giant - see Ape (pg. ###).

Gnoll - as Hyena (pg. ###), but upright, sapient.

Gnome - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Goat, Telluric - see Telluric Goat (pg. ###).
Goblin

Goblin War Engine

Goldbug - see Rust Monster (pg. ###).
Golem 

Golem, Biscuit - see Biscuit Golem (pg. ###)

Golem, Clay - see Clay Golem (pg. ###)

Golem, Flesh - see Flesh Golem (pg. ###)

Golem, Iron - see Iron Golem (pg. ###)

Golem, Snow - see Snow Golem (pg. ###).

Golem, Stone - see Stone Golem (pg. ###)

Gomphothere - see Elephant (pg. ###).

Gorgon - see Medusa (pg. ###).

Gorgosaurus - see Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###).

Gorilla - see Ape (pg. ###).

Gremlin - see Imp (pg. ###) or Brownie (pg. ###).
Grey Horse
Griffon

Grig - see Sprite (pg. ###).

Grim - see Hell Hound (pg. ###).

Grindylow - see Kappa (pg. ###).

Groaning Spirit - see Banshee (pg. ###)

Grootslang - see Giant Snake (pg. ###).
Ground Sloth

Grouper - see Shark (pg. ####).
Grue

Gynosphinx - see Sphinx (pg. ###).

Hag, Ice - see Sea Hag (pg. ###).

Hag, Night - see Sea Hag (pg. ###).

Hag, Sea - see Sea Hag (pg. ###).

Hag, Tempest - see Sea Hag (pg. ###).

Hamadryad - see Dryad (pg. ###).
Harpy
Harvest Avatar

Hatchetfish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Hatchling
Hateful Goose

Haunt - see Poltergeist (pg. ###).

Hawk, Giant - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).

Hekatonkheire - as Giant (pg. ###), but with one hundred hands. Can attack up to hundred adjacent targets.

Helicoprion - see Shark (pg. ###).
Hell Hound
Herd Lizard

Heron, Giant - as Flightless Bird (pg. ###), but fly normal.

Hesperid - see Sun Dog (pg. ###).

Hidebehind - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Hieracosphinx - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Hippalectryon - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Hippocampus - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Hippogriff - see Griffon (pg. ###).
Hippopotamus
Hive Insect

Hob - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Hobgoblin - see Orc (pg. ###).

Hodag - see Drake (pg. ###).

Hollyphant - as Lamassu (pg. ###), but elephantine.
Homunculus

Hō-ō - see Firebird (pg. ###).

Hornet, Giant - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Hyad - see Raincloud (pg. ###).
Hydra
Hyena
Ice Hag

Ichthyocentaur - as Centaur (pg. ###), but back half of horse is a fish tail.

Ichthyosaur - see Shark (pg. ###).

Ifrit - see Jinnī (pg. ###).

Iguanodon - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).
Imp

Impundulu - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Incubus - see Devil (pg. ###).

Inkanyamba - as Sea Serpent (pg. ###), but waterfall-dwelling.

Insect, Colossal - see Colossal Insect (pg. ###)

Invisible Stalker - see Elemental (pg. ###).
Iron Fulmination
Iron Golem

Item, Animated - see Animated Item (pg. ###)

Jabberwock - see Nightmare Beast (pg. ###).

Jackal - see Hyena (pg. ###).

Jaguar - see Panther (pg. ###).

Jelly - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Jengu - see Merfolk (pg. ###).
Jinnī 

Jishin Mushi - see Colossal Insect (pg. ###).

Jorōgumo - see Lamia (pg. ###).

Juggernaut - see Robot Titan (pg. ###).

Kallikantzaros - as Goblin (pg. ###), but incredibly dim.
Kamaitachi
Kappa

Kaqtukaq - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Kataw - see Merfolk (pg. ###).

Kelpie - as Lamia (pg. ###), but can transform into an aquatic horse.

Kilmoulis - see Brownie (pg. ###).
Kirin
Knight

Knocker - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).
Kobold

Kodama - see Dryad (pg. ###).

Konrul - see Firebird (pg. ###).
Kraken

Krill Swarm - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Lamia
Lammasu

Lampad - see Alpine Specter (pg. ###).

Lamprey, Giant - see Marine Worm (pg. ###).

Land Shrimp - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Lavellan -as Catoblepas (pg. ###), but rat-shaped.
Leafling
Leech of Paradise
Legendary Whale

Lembuswana - see Chimera (pg. ###).

Leopard - see Panther (pg. ###).

Leprechaun - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Leucrotta - see Hyena (pg. ###).
Lich

Lillend - see Couatl (pg. ###).

Lindworm - as Drake (pg. ###), but with only two limbs, moves like a snake.
Lion

Lion's Mane Jellyfish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Living Armour - see Animated Item (pg. ###).
Living Gem



Lizard, Flying - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###)

Lizard, Herd - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###)

Lizard, Swift - see Swift Lizard (pg. ###)

Lizard, Thunder - see Thunder Lizard (pg. ###)

Lizard, Tyrant - see Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###)

Lomie - as Catoblepas (pg. ###), but a moose. Spits boiling water.

Longma - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Lou Carcolh - see Predatory Snail (pg. ###).

Lurefish - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).

Lurker Above - see Mimic (pg. ###).

Lusca - as Kraken (pg. ###). Shark head, squid body.

Lutin - see Fairy (pg. ###).

Lycanthrope - see Werewolf (pg. ###).

Lyegrabber - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Lynx, Giant - see Panther (pg. ###).

Mahwot - see Crocodile (pg. ###).

Mammoth - see Elephant (pg. ###).

Manananggal - see Vampire (pg. ###).

Manatee, Flesh-Eating - see Seal (pg. ###).
Mandrake

Mandrill - see Baboon (pg. ###).

Mandurugo - see Vampire (pg. ###).

Mannegishi - see Sprite (pg. ###).

Man-o-War - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Manticore
Mantis Shrimp

Mantis, Giant - as Mantis Shrimp (pg. ###), but terrestrial.

Mari Lwyd - see Grey Horse (pg. ###).

Marid - see Jinnī (pg. ###).
Marine Worm

Mastiff - see Wolf (pg. ###).

Mastodon - see Elephant (pg. ###).
Medusa

Megalodon - see Shark (pg. ###).

Megalosaurus- see Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###).

Megatherium - see Ground Sloth (pg. ###).

Melusine - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Mephit - see Spitling (pg. ###) or Sandwalker (pg. ###).
Mercenary
Merchant
Merfolk

Merlion - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Microbial Mat  - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Mimic
Mind Eater
Minotaur

Moa - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Moasaur - see Seal (pg. ###).

Moha-Moha - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).
Monstrous Vermin

Moon Jelly - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Morlock - see Troglodyte (pg. ###).

Mormo - see Night Hag (pg. ###).

Mosquito, Giant - see Skeeter (pg. ###).

Mothman - as Banshee (pg. ###), but a red-eyed giant moth. 

Mountain Lion - see Panther (pg. ###).

Mouse, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg.  ###).
Mummy
Murderous Crows
Mutant
Myconid
Naga

Naked Mole Rat - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Narwhal - see Seal (pg. ###).
Necromancer

Necrophidius - as Giant Snake (pg. ###), but made of bones.

Nereid - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).
Night Hag
Nightmare Beast

Ningyo - see Merfolk (pg. ###).

Nixie - see Sprite (pg. ###).
Noble Giant
Nuckelavee

Nue - see Chimera (pg. ###).

Nymph, Flower - see Flower Nymph (pg. ###).

Oarfish - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).

Octopus, Giant - see Kraken (pg. ###).
Ogre

Ogre, Quantum - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Oni - see Ogre (pg. ###).

Onocentaur - as Satyr (pg. ###), but front half human, back half donkey.

Oókempán - see Kappa (pg. ###).
Ooze

Opabinia - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).

Opinicus - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Orangutan - see Ape (pg. ###).
Orc

Orca - see Toothed Whale (pg. ###).

Origorúso - as Ogre (pg. ###), but with enormous ears.

Ostrich - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Otyugh - as Blizzard Eel (pg. ###), but eats offal, cannot fly.

Oviraptor - see Swift Lizard (pg. ###).

Owl, Giant - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).
Owlbear

Pachycephalosaurus - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).

Pairío - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).

Palis - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).
Panther
Peasant

Penanggalan - see Vampire (pg. ###).
Perfect Predator
Peryton

Phantasm - see Elsewhere Creature (pg. ###).

Phantom - see Ghost (pg. ###).

Phoenix - see Firebird (pg. ###).

Physeter - as Rotifer (pg. ###), but whale-shaped, and can also create a whirlpool-sized column of water.

Piasa - see Manticore (pg. ###).

Piercer - see Mimic (pg. ###).

Pike, Giant - see Shark (pg. ###).
Pilgrim
Pirate

Pixie - see Sprite (pg. ###).

Pixiu - as Lamassu (pg. ###), but dragon-headed and lion-bodied. Loves gold, but fairly loyal. 

Plant, Predatory - see Predatory Plant (pg. ###).

Plesiosaur - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).
Polevik

Poltergeist

Porpita - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Predatory Plant
Predatory Snail

Prophet - see Visionary (pg. ###).
Pseudodragon

Pterodactyl - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).

Púca - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Pudding, Deadly - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Pudding, Delicious - see Biscuit Golem (pg. ###).
Pyromancer

Qilin - see Kirin (pg. ###).

Quasit - see Imp (pg. ###).
Questing Beast

Radiodont - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).

Ragsnatcher - see Rust Monster (pg. ###).
Raijū
Raincloud

Rakshasa - see Devil (pg. ###).

Ram, Shofar - see Shofar Ram (pg. ###).

Rat King - as Murderous Crows (pg. ###), but a fused tangle of rats. 

Rat, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).

Ray - see Shark (pg. ###).
Remora
Remorhaz

Revenant - see Wight (pg. ###).

Rhea - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).
Rhinoceros
Robot Hound
Robot Servant
Robot Titan

Roc - see Wyvern (pg. ###).

Rokurokubi - see Vampire (pg. ###).

Ropen - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).

Roper - see Mimic (pg. ###).
Roperite
Rotifer
Rust Monster

Sabre-Toothed Cat - see Tiger (pg. ###) or Bear (pg. ###).

Sahuagin - see Merfolk (pg. ###).

Sailor - see Pirate (pg. ###).

Salamander - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).
Sandwalker

Sarangay - see Minotaur (pg. ###).

Sasquatch - see Ape (pg. ###).

Satori - as Baboon (pg. ###), but telepathic, babbles read thoughts.
Satyr

Sawfish - see Shark (pg. ###).
Scapegoat
Scarecrow
Sea Hag

Sea Lion - see Seal (pg. ###).

Sea Nettle - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Sea Serpent
Sea Slug
Sea Star
Seal

Selkie - see Werewolf (pg. ###).

Seraphim - see Angel (pg. ###).

Serpopard - see Griffon (pg. ###).

Shadow - see Ghost (pg. ###) or Grue (pg. ###).

Shadow Dragon - see Ethereal Dragon (pg. ###).

Shahmaran - see Naga (pg. ###).
Shambler
Shark

Shedu - see Lamassu (pg. ###).
Shivered Beast
Shofar Ram
Sigbin

Silverfish - see Rust Monster (pg. ###).

Simurgh - see Griffon (pg. ###) or Firebird (pg. ###).

Siphonophore - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Siren - as Harpy (pg. ###), but mostly human, aquatic.
Skeeter
Skeleton

Skin-walker - see Werewolf (pg. ###).

Slime - see Ooze (pg. ###).

Slug, Giant - see Sea Slug (pg. ###).

Snail, Predatory - see Predatory Snail (pg. ###).

Snailfish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Snake, Giant - see Giant Snake (pg. ###).

Snallygaster - see Chimera (pg. ###).
Snow Fungus
Snow Golem

Snow Leopard - see Panther (pg. ###).

Snowman, Abominable - see Ape (pg. ###).

Snowman, Adorable - see Snow Golem (pg. ###).

Soldier - see Mercenary (pg. ###).

Songòmby - as Catoblepas (pg. ###), but carnivorous.

Specter - see Alpine Specter (pg. ###) or Ghost (pg. ###).
Sphinx

Spider, Giant - see Giant Spider (pg. ###).
Spitling

Spriggan - see Polevik (pg. ###) or Fairy (pg. ###).

Sprite

Squid, Giant - see Kraken (pg. ###).

Squid, Vampire - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Stareater - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).

Stegosaurus - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).

Stirge - see Skeeter (pg. ###).

Stone Golem

Stone Golem (pg. ###)

Strigoi - see Vampire (pg. ###).
Strong Toad

Struthiomimus - see Swift Lizard (pg. ###).

Succubus - see Devil (pg. ###).

Su-monster - see Ape (pg. ###).
Sun Dog

Sundew, Giant - see Predatory Plant (pg. ###).

Swan Maiden - see Werewolf (pg. ###).

Swarm - see Murderous Crows (pg. ###).
Swift Lizard

Sylph - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).

Tagamaling - see Ghoul (pg. ###).
Tardigrade

Tarrasque - see Beast of Creation (pg. ###)

Tattie-Bogle - see Scarecrow (pg. ###).

Telescopefish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Telluric Goat
Tempest Hag

Termite, Giant - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Terror Bird - see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Thoqqua - see Marine Worm (pg. ###).
Thriae
Thunder Lizard

Tick, Giant - see Monstrous Vermin (pg. ###).

Tigbanua - as Ogre (pg. ###), but one-eye, long neck.
Tiger

Tikbalang - as Will-o'-the-Wisp (pg. ###), but can transform into a horse-headed Minotaur (pg. ###).

Titan - see Noble Giant (pg. ###).

Titanothere - see Rhinoceros (pg. ###).

Toad, Giant - as Kappa (pg. ###), but not intelligent.

Toad, Strong - see Strong Toad (pg. ###).
Toothed Whale

Torosaurus - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).
Tortoise Tsar
Townsfolk
Treant

Triceratops - see Herd Lizard (pg. ###).

Triffid - see Predatory Plant (pg. ###).

Trilobite - see Ancient Arthropod (pg. ###).

Tripodero - as Firebat (pg. ###), but a long-tailed lizard on extendable legs. Spits clay pellets.

Tripodfish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Troglodyte
Troll

Tsukumogami - see Animated Item (pg. ###).

Tullimonstrum - as Sea Serpent (pg. ###), but oval body, grasping proboscis, eyestalks. 
Tunnel Hulk

Tupilaq - see Flesh Golem (pg. ###).

Turkey, Giant - see Hateful Goose (pg. ###).

Turtle, Dragon - see Sea Serpent (pg. ###).

Tyrannosaurus - see Tyrant Lizard (pg. ###).
Tyrant Lizard

Umbral - see Sun Dog (pg. ###).

Underdog - see Shivered Beast (pg. ###).

Undine - see Elemental Spirit (pg. ###).
Unicorn

Urchin - see Sea Star (pg. ###).

Urisk - see Brownie (pg. ###).

Ushi-oni - as Giant Spider (pg. ###), but with an ox's head.
Vampire

Vargouille - see Stirge (pg. ###).
Veggie-Mite

Velociraptor - see Swift Lizard (pg. ###).

Vetala - see Vampire (pg. ###).

Viperfish - see Abyssal Fish (pg. ###).
Visionary

Vodyanoi - see Kappa (pg. ###).

Vorompatra- see Flightless Bird (pg. ###).

Vulture, Giant - see Flying Lizard (pg. ###).

Walking Stick - see Animated Item (pg. ###).

Walrus - see Seal (pg. ###).

Wanyūdō - as Dullahan (pg. ###), but a burning wheel with a face at its hub.

Warthog - see Boar (pg. ###).

Wasp, Giant - see Hive Insect (pg. ###).

Water Bear - see Tardigrade (pg. ###).

Water Weird - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Wendigo - see Ghoul (pg. ###).
Werewolf
Whale

White Beguiler - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).
Wicker Walker
Wight
Will-o'-the-Wisp

Wind Walker - see Sandwalker (pg. ###).

Wiwaxia - see Predatory Snail (pg. ###).
Wizard
Wolf

Woodwose - see Druid (pg. ###).

Worm, Giant - see Wurm (pg. ###).

Worm, Marine - see Marine Worm (pg. ###).

Wraith - see Ghost (pg. ###).
Wurm
Wyvern

Xiezhi - as Shofar Ram (pg. ###), but blasts liars and protects the truthful.

Yacuruna - see Merfolk (pg. ###).

Yeren - see Ape (pg. ###)

Yeti - see Ape (pg. ###).
Young Dragon

Yowie - see Ape (pg. ###).

Yuki-onna - see Ice Hag (pg. ###).

Ziz - see Beast of Creation (pg. ###).
Zombie
Zombie Dragon